Formulation of Hypothesis in research is an essential task in the entire Research Process that comes in the third step. A hypothesis is a tentative solution to a research problem or question. Here, we will cover a functional definition of hypothesis & basic Steps in the formulation of hypotheses for your research.
Research works, in fact, are designed to verify the hypothesis. Therefore, a researcher, of course, would understand the meaning and nature of the hypothesis in order to formulate a hypothesis and then to test the hypothesis.
What is Hypothesis in Research?
A hypothesis is a tentative statement of a proposition which the researcher seeks to prove. It’s basically a concrete generalization. Of course, this generalization requires essential characteristics that pertain to an entire class of phenomena.
When a theory stated as a testable proposition formally and subject to empirical verification we can define as a hypothesis. Researchers make a hypothesis on the basis of some earlier theory and some rationale that generally accepted as true. The hypothesis test finally will decide whether it is true or rejected.
So, to clarify a hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two or more variables. The researcher set out the variables to prove or disprove. Hypothesis essentially includes three elements. For example-
- Relationship between variables.
Example of Hypothesis
- Rewards increase reading achievements
- Rewards decrease reading achievements
- Or rewards have no effect on reading achievements
In the above examples- variables are- Rewards & Achievements.
Steps in Formulation of Hypothesis
1. Define Variables
At first, with a view to formulating a hypothesis, you must define your variables. What do you want to test? Will you test that rewards increase reading achievement? Or rewards decrease reading achievement? Whatever your goals are, they need to be clearly defined, quantifiable, and measurable. This will provide you with a clear idea of what to follow to achieve results.
2. Study In-Depth the Variables
If we do think that your variables are Rewards & Achievements, then you need to intense study how rewards increase reading achievements? An in-depth study, rigorous questions, and data of rewards increase reading achievements will make you able to confirm your hypothesis. Specify dependent and independent variables.
3. Specify the Nature of Relationship
Then, identify what relationship there exist between the variables. What variable influences the other? That is what is the dependent variable and what is the independent variable? How Rewards impact achievements? If reward plays a key role in reading achievements, then reward is the independent variable.
4. Identify Study Population
The population in research we mean the entire group of individuals is going to study. If you want to test how rewards increase reading achievements in the United Kingdom, you need not study the whole population of the United Kingdom. Because the total population does not involve in reading achievements. Therefore, the researcher must identify the study population.
5. Make Sure Variables are Testable
Variables in your hypothesis must be testable. Otherwise, the hypothesis would be worthless. Because your research study must accept or reject a variable. So, variables you must need to test. Testable variables can only be accepted or rejected. Moreover, the sole aim of a research hypothesis is to test variables in the long run.
In conclusion, a researcher or investigator can generate more accurate research results through exactly the following 5 basic Steps in the Formulation of Hypothesis.