Research work whether it is scientific research or social involves a systematic process that keeps it focused on specific objectives and collection of required and essential data and information for analysis so that the researcher can eventually come to a conclusion. In doing so, the researcher has to go through the basic 5 Steps of the Research Process.
The research process is a process of some consequent steps in which one step is linked to another step in the process. If changes are made in one step of the process, the researcher must review all other steps to ensure that changes have been reflected throughout the process. The Research process typically starts with the formulation of the Research Problem that ends with the Reporting Research Findings.
5 Steps of the Research Process
Here are in short five fundamental steps of the research process in conducting research work. This writes up will help a little in your research work. Let’s take a look at these.
Step-1: Research problem
The research problem is a statement about an area of concerns, questions, and queries for the improvement of a condition, elimination of the difficulty, or the scholarly question that exists in scholarly literature, theory or practice, which points to meaningful understanding and deliberate need.
A research problem is a question that answers a particular issue. For example, how the young to cope up with the new technology. Choosing a research problem or question is an essential component of both quantitative and qualitative research.
The problem with research is, in general, the fact that you want to study deeply in order to know more about it.
Step-2: Research Project Layout
This step focuses on creating a research plan or a comprehensive approach to how you are going to solve the research problem identified. A framework or blueprint of a research plan or methodology for conducting the research project. It outlines the processes required to obtain required information, and its purpose is to create a study that examines hypotheses of interest, determines possible answers to research questions, and provides the information needed for decision making.
This Research Project Layout involves the following steps:
⊕ Studying the existing literature or Secondary data analysis.
⊕ Deciding Qualitative or Quantitative research.
⊕ Defining the required information for research.
⊕ Measuring and scaling research methods.
⊕ Questionnaire design.
⊕ Sample process and sample size.
⊕ Data analysis plan.
Step-3: Data Collection
When the Research project layout is done, the actual study begins with the collection of data. Data collection is an important step in providing the information needed to answer the research questions. Each study collects some types of data to answer the research question, whether it be from the existing literature or data may collect in the form of survey method, using questionnaires, observations or literature. For example, if we want to know the root cause of poverty in a particular area, the researcher will collect data on defined variables. For example; the poverty rate, the living standard of the people, literacy rate, etc.
The researcher will collect data in two or more times in the research program. Once data is collected on the variables, the researcher is ready to go to the next step of the research process, which is data analysis.
Step-4: Data Analysis
After collecting enough data and information for the research study, it is time for data analysis. The researcher finally has the data for analysis so that the research questions can be answered. In operational planning, the researcher specifies how the data would be analyzed. The researcher now analyzes the data according to the plan. The results of this analysis are then reviewed and summarized in a manner directly relating to answering the research question. Then two or more sets of data will be analyzed to determine if there was any difference between the first measure and the second measure for each individual in the program. The collected data will be analyzed to determine if the differences are statistically significant. If the differences are statistically significant, then the study validates the theory that was the focus of the study.
Step-5: Reporting Research Findings
The research report is a written paper or prepared speech that describes the results of qualitative or quantitative research or both. A research report is the result of a scientific investigation, a brief explanation of the research conducted. The main body of reporting research findings basically includes:
In the end, it is important to remember that a few steps have to be crossed to complete a single step. Data Collection necessarily needs some steps to be performed in real such as reviewing the existing resources, identifying data population, data recording, data processing, etc. But in fact, with the combination of the fundamental 5 steps of the research process, you would be able to conduct a research project effectively that will bring ultimate success.